Reprinted with permission, courtesy Lady Hugs
Copyrighted © 2004
In the world of BDSM it is a different world entirely, in which the art of using the tools is demanding of the skill and of the equipment.
There are different styles, which means a type, method, fashion, and designated manner of caning.
Strokes, which are defined as, impact, to beat, a blow, to knock, hitting, thump, a pat, to caress, as well as to soothe and pet, are selected by the dominant to apply to get the desired effect.
There are often many debates as to what a rod is and the differences between a rod and a cane is, as well as what a switch is and where it lays in the classification of whips.
By dictionary standards a rod is defined as a bar, shaft, staff, wand, pin, pike, mace, baton. Whereas, the cane by definition means, a stick, staff, pole, rod, fishing rod, walking stick.
The switch is in a whip class all of it’s own, in which there are seven classifications of whips. Canes also have their own classification with rods.
Now, to address specifically this chapter on Canes, Rods and Switches, we wish to first look as to what are the major known styles of caning.
These styles are American, Asian, English, German and Middle-Eastern.
The strokes that are known are Clap, Drum, Hit and hold, Hit and Lift, Hit and slide, Scoop and Tipping.
In using the cane, the dominant also must bare in mind that the submissive can sabotage the effect of the cane by merely moving out of position selected by the dominant.
The positions that best suit most sensual canings or the use of the rod is standing unbound against the wall, a bondage furniture such as a X-frame or a Saint Andrew’s Cross, or placing palms down flat onto a surface in which the submissive can straighten out their back as to be extremely level, with legs parted or, to bend and grab their ankles.
In selecting how a scene will be conducted, a dominant must know the ability of a submissive to maintain position in a comfortable position, especially when this is for sensual play, entertainment or instruction.
Punishment positions do not keep in account the comfort of the submissive as this is not the intent of the use of the cane, rod or switch. This also does not include warm up of the slave’s body before the application of such tool.
For now let us address the use of a cane, rod or switch as a sensual tool, in which the dominant will wish to warm up the skin of their submissive in order to lower the risks of marks, bruising and injuries.
The diameter of the cane is important, in which the thicker the rod the more thud like it shall feel to the slave’s bottom. As the diameter narrows or thins, then the sting effect is increased as well as the risk of breaking the cane because of the thin diameter.
The length of the cane is equally important. The European standard for canes is as follows. The standard also known as “Nursery” English cane, sometimes know as the “Governess” cane, is 21 inches by three-sixteenth of an inch. The Junior or also known as the “Office” English cane, is 30 to 32 inches by one-forth inch. The Senior English cane, is 33 inches by five-sixteenth of an inch and the English Disciplinary cane is 36 inches by six-sixteenth of an inch. The Singapore Punishment cane is six feet long and one-half to three-fourths of an inch in diameter.
The type of cane is also a factor. Having a selection of canes made from bamboo, birch, yew and rattan, along with man made materials will add to the variety of sensations a dominant can provide and use to work the slave in a manner, as to provide a warm up to a maintained subspace or flying state, and to bring them down and without the aid of other equipment such as floggers, whips or paddles.
Because of the wide use of canes in which education in the selection and care of them has much to be desired, it is for this reason, the author believes that supply is limited as to what types of canes are available.
Perhaps, it is the faulty system of BDSM Support and Educational groups to which use what is available, are self taught themselves without classical training or exposure. A number of reasons can be a reason why knowledge is so limited on the use, selection and care of rods and canes.
Birch, which comes from trees, sting and often are associated more with “switches” rather then canes.
The English term, “To be birched” roots to the use of a Birch cane or switch.
Bamboos are a bit more common in canes, and are troublesome for many as they splinter and split easily if not kept moist. No amount of oil will keep a bamboo cane “moist.” So, it must be soaked in salt water, to keep its flexibility.
Rattan, a more commonly found type of cane has provided the American BDSM scene with safe and hardy stamina, with little care and maintenance.
Rattan is usually sold with two types of finishes, which are water based polyurethane or raw linseed oil. At times vendors will sell rattan unfinished, which is still safe to use, soaking it or moisture helps the flexibility but the finishes prolong the life of the cane as a seal.
Yew, a type of tree has always been the source of canes in ancient times in Europe. Known for its natural suppleness for a long period of time, was and still is one of the favored types of materials for canes.
Although it is customary to see canes stored in a box, a tube or other types of containers, the ideal way to store canes is by hanging them or suspending them, rather then storing them flat and on the horizontal.
For those beginning in BDSM’s lifestyle, I recommend highly using the rattan cane, as it is the hardiest cane available as well as economical to maintain and keep.
Other cane and rod materials in the man made category are aluminum arrow shafts that have several diameters and can be found in the majority of sport shops. You also can find carbon arrow shafts however, are prone to fracture if you take and use harshly. Cedar arrow shafts are passable but, you can find wood dowels in your local hardware store that will create the same effect on the slave and, it is less expensive.
In addition, you can find canes and rods in hard plastic, Lucite, wire but coated with rubber or leather, wood covered by rubber or leather as well as all kinds of created ideas as far as applying a straight shaft onto the bottom of a slave.
However, in man made materials as with natural, the people using such rods and canes must know that in using rods and canes, they will produce injuries and bruising if done improperly. Again, taking responsibility is very important as well as to practice a lot on pillows and blankets a lot before applying such rods and canes onto a human.
The use of rods and canes really do not require a lot of force or energy to create a massive effect. It may not be immediate so again, wait and around 10 to 15 seconds the slave should be reactive to the cane depending on the cane used, style used, stroke used and the slave’s body position.
In choosing a style of caning, one must first understand the foundation purpose of each style and stroke. That is to land the cane or rod evenly on the buttocks as not to have a partial strike into the off side of the body.
The cane or rod must lay true East and West on the slave’s body, which are North and South. To achieve a total strike to both cheeks the Dominant must position their body as to stand at the hip or a bit forward of the hip of the slave in order to strike true to hit both buttocks cheeks.
Even these measures, due to the flexibility of a cane or switch the tip end will flex down and dig into the slave’s skin in which visible damage will be more evident and not so the strike closest to the Dominant. This is why the Dominant should switch sides as to even the strike damage and marks, thus creating even effect.
The grip of the cane or rod is another detail that is often over looked, yet most important.
In gripping the cane, you wish not to hold it firmly but as lightly as possible, as to allow a cane to vibrate within your hand as well as on the body of the slave. In order to do this, the ideal hand would be soft and flexible, with a light pinch, using the index finger and thumb to hold the cane, then the remaining three fingers to squeeze shut as to send the cane forward into the strike of the targeted area.
Unlike flogging with the weak hand, the use of the cane is done in the strong hand and only the roll of the hand from the wrist into a backhand stroke, is used to address the strike in the weak hand position. Or in other words, a motion as if to backhand to the target rather then facing a forehand stroke, strong hand to the target.
The foundation reason why the grip is light and to allow the cane to be loose in a Master’s hand, is that the energy sent forward can vibrate into the body of the slave without the wave of energy returning to vibrate into the arm of the Master.
A firm grip by a Master only mutes the power and energy of the cane or rod, often times unwittingly done due to the lack of education and knowledge how vibration and energy transmits from the hand, through the cane and into the body and organs of the slave and radiates from there depending on their position.
Another flaw in the grip is using the index finger as a pointer or to rest on the cane itself. Again, this retards the vibration and effect of the cane enough to mute the cane’s total power and energy.
In selecting a specific style, such as Asian, American, English, German and Middle Eastern style, the Master must be attired in a comfortable manner, as well as to have flexibility to move within these styles as to achieve a smooth and continual stroke from beginning to end, which is when the cane strikes the slave’s body.
Often readers will find books on caning or in pictures see some styles such as English caning style and the Mistress’s hair is neatly pinned or placed into a bun or ponytail. It really comes from common caning sense, as to keep the hair from being entangled.
Now that the slave is positioned, the grip of the cane and the cane selection has been made; it comes down to the beginning of a sensual caning session or a punishment or disciplinary session.
The Master must have the intent in their minds and thus the slave is aware of which mental and physical realm they will experience next.
Since the majority of the BDSM leather community prefers to use the cane or rod as a sensual tool, it is up to the individual Master to use the cane as a means of punishment as well. However, it bares repeating that the slave must know that the cane is being used as punishment and not sensual, entertainment or educational purposes.
The author prefers to keep canes out of the area of punishment if at all possible and keep canes and rods for sensual, education and entertainment purposes.
In addressing styles in more detail, the Asian caning style is very much like a martial art style, in which the symmetrical balance of the cane, the send and the position is taken before striking the cane upon the body.
Using both hands, in a grip where the strong hand is placed above the weak hand, in line, much like a golf stroke, the legs of the Master is slightly parted and bent at the knee as to be balanced and have maximum power of movement and power from the legs as well as the shoulder to go into the striking motion of the cane and to have and maintain a fluid motion in planes and not arches.
The intensity of the stroke in Asian style is governed more by body energy then by the style itself. Thus, Asian style can be viewed as harsh and extremely painful rightfully so, yet with soft hands, well-measured technique what is usually reserved for discipline can become sensual.
The American style of caning is most likely the most familiar style in the American leather community in general.
This style also uses the level and no arches or curls in sending the stroke forward onto the slave’s body. Further, the American style uses one hand with a soft grip and often used with the pat, tap rapid taps and rapid taps with an occasional hard stroke.
Often this style is used on slaves that are standing or lying down and occasionally on a spanking horse.
The English style is with legs slightly parted, at the hip of the slave. The Master then raises the cane back and level with their shoulder, cocking the wrist as to bend the cane slightly over towards their head, then making a lazy “L” or a fluid motion that curves down and then levels when in line with the slave’s buttocks and carries it through straight and level until striking the buttocks.
The German style of caning, is where the Master takes his position at the hip of the slave, then raising their arm straight out to breast or chest level directly back from the target, then much like a porch swing drawn back evenly and sent evenly, is sent to the buttocks. Only the wrist rolls to keep the path of the cane level and into this scooping motion or a lazy “L” motion much like the English style.
In addressing the Middle Eastern style of caning, the author wishes to have your undivided attention on this style due to the enormous risks of injury.
In using the Middle Eastern style of caning, the position of the cane is with the Master’s legs parted, the cane is raised and then cocked in such a manner, from the wrist as to have the cane touch the back of the Master.
In sending the cane forward into a strike, the cane travels more in a arch then level, and thus the energy and the position of the cane will gouge the back of the slave and will rip them apart.
A true Middle Eastern cane is vicious; it also is split at the tip approximately three inches and is meant to do serious injury, as it is still a form of punishment in the Middle East.
Men who use this stroke will do damage and injury by the nature of the stroke as well as the male body muscle group is most powerful no matter how weakly the stroke is sent forward. This danger from using too much power and energy from the shoulder and arm also applies to Mistresses as well.
This style has merit in which a slave is on a bed or laying flat as it cuts in half the total force and follow through that would normally be sent in Middle Eastern style, with the addition of a well restrained energy to mute the effects of this most powerful stroke known to this author.
Masters may also use the Middle Eastern style to who use taws or vipers. The two-fingered taws in this style are extremely effecting and deceptively powerful. Again Masters must not put full weight and power into the swing. This also applies to Mistresses.
Now, it is time to address the importance of positions the slave takes.
First off, a Master need to understand that the body by its composition is designed to take shock impacts and vibrates. So, knowing anatomy is helpful as positions taken work with or against the Master as well as the slave.
The most comforting of positions is standing. However, when standing unsupported, such as in a freestanding frame, the body when struck upon the buttocks is allowed to take the vibration into the hip but will not vibrate upwards into the chest or elsewhere.
Should the slave be affixed to a X-frame / Saint Andrews Cross, the slave’s hip lies upon the board and the vibration is halted and ends at the hip and no further, and often times only half way into the hip and stops at the spine.
When a slave is vertical on a rack the material of the rack if soft will allow more vibration or energy from the cane to pass through the body. If the rack is solid such as a table or bed, the solid material will mute the cane’s energy.
When the slave hunches their back, this exposes the spine and risks bruising if their back is used in caning. The ideal position is rolling back their shoulders to allow their muscle and fatty tissues to take the hit rather then the ribs or spine. However, this only applies to women with weight and men with muscle.
Women to who are skinny as well as men without muscle development on their back will need to be caned on the back by using the partial stroke as not to injure their backs and spine.
When a slave takes a position, unrestricted and out of bondage, the more ability the cane can vibrate, so the following positions are the author’s favorites.
The classical English position is where the slave places their palms upon a table or chair. They then make their back as level as possible, as to picture a tray or cane to lay on their back. Then with their legs parted, causing their vagina and anus to be slightly open and maintain it, is the most effective and most comfortable position of all, as well as to have the maximum effect of all the styles and strokes a Master wishes to use.
Another position is having legs slightly apart and then grabbing the ankles. This in turn stretches the skin of the buttocks tight and stretches the muscles underneath the skin to also increase the sensation and effect of the cane.
Masters must take into consideration, that should they have a heavy set slave, the weight and fat will not allow them to take this position at all, as well as it will effect their ability to breath and other discomforts. It is recommended that the Classical English position be used.
Another position is that in a kneeling one. With thighs parted, the slave’s back is level and straight, shoulder in line with the ankle and hip, this position is wonderful to use on backs of slaves and with some suppleness the Master can also cane the buttocks as well.
Hands can be placed in any position as long as back is level.
In taking the classical whip position, the slave kneels and then leans forward, resting their head away from the Master on the floor or hands. Then raises their buttocks up to which their buttocks are available for caning.
This position favors the Asian and Middle Eastern style the most but is used with all caning styles.
In caning the upper frontal thighs, a slave needs to support their weight with their arms, and then squat as to have their upper thigh muscles tighten and round.
Female slaves that squat can keep their legs closed or open, as their genitals are not exposed. However, for male slaves if they close their legs, will put their penis and balls at risk. This is why male slaves always open their legs and allow their genitals to drop lower into lap.
Caning the back of the thighs, the best position is to stand or lay down.
To address those to who have physical limitations or disabilities, there are ways to cane a slave.
It is the same with caning and flogging to position the slave with disabilities in such a manner as to be safe and secure from injuries other then the strokes and styles used.
For those to whom have leg problems, I often recommend using a bar stool or a chair to which they can sit upon and have them scoot back as to allow some overhang of their buttocks. An assistant, a solid table or rack or even a handrail then can support the frontal part of the slave.
Those to whom have no ability to support themselves in an upright position can be placed upon a rack or bed and caned and perhaps straddle a spanking horse.
For those Masters or Mistresses with disabilities, the afore mentioned styles can be used or modified in some fashioned as to be able to cane from a wheel chair, stool or armless chair or bench.
Onward, we go into the use and description of strokes, as well as intensity.
The basic strokes are found in the use of one cane. Such strokes are hit and hold, hit and lift and hit and slide, partial stroke, scoop stroke, tapping and tipping. The more advanced caning strokes which uses two canes, one in each hand or multiple canes, are clap stroke and drum stroke.
In warm up of a slave’s body, the best stroke is a soft circular stroke which is known as the scoop stroke, it is by it’s use and description a light stroke to which warms up the skin, mostly on the buttocks where the majority of caning is done.
The grip is light, the cane is allowed to vibrate and gently bounce off the buttocks of the slave. This can be alternated with patting or tapping the cane softly on the buttocks as to warm and prepare the skin.
When the slave is relaxed and the skin is warmer, a more increased intensity can be used to warm up the skin.
Often times Masters will use floggers to do the same process however, it really is not necessary to use floggers if the Master uses a soft hand and stroke, with a progressive layering until the skin becomes pink or warm to the touch.
The slave now that he or she is warmed up can now take caning with far less risk of damage or bruising now that the skin is prepared.
Again style has of itself their intensity. And each style has a variety of intensity of it’s own because of the distance which increases energy.
The strokes however create different sensations. The scoop stroke is gentle and thuds like, with similar sensation much like a light spanking. The thicker the cane the more thud it produces and the thinner the more sting it produces.
In the use of taps, this energy is sent forward chiefly by the wrist and not from the forearm or shoulder.
The tap sensation is much like a insect bite and goes away quickly unless, the Master rapidly taps as to pile one on top of the other which goes from a bite to sting and pain.
The hit and hold stroke, is one strike of the cane but not lifting the cane for approximately three to five seconds. This stroke keeps the sensation of impact going longer as the compression of the impact sight keeps the nerve and sensory bundles of the skin under the impression that the impact still exists. Thus, the sensation stays and lingers, as well as the heat or burning sensation.
The hit and lift, is again one stroke to the target area but is immediately lifted, again found predominantly in American style of caning, to which the impact is made with immediate relief. The cane lifted, the impact site then radiates the sensation and dissipates through the body. If standing it dissipates at the hip, if in English it dissipates outward from the entire body from within.
The hit and slide stroke is often over looked by many, as it has to be more closely observed and taught to point out the deliberate motion of this stroke.
Once the cane strikes the slave, the Master holds the cane to the body but also slides the cane to themselves in a smooth motion within a fraction of the conclusion of the hit. This motion or slide, upon a well warmed skin of the slave will give the sensation of burn or sting with the additional sensation of being torn or having their skin pulled as if it was thread being pulled through fabric.
This hit and slide stroke is wonderful should you have a textured cane or the body of a riding crop that has been recycled into a cane.
The partial stroke, which has been vastly been mislabeled as a tip stroke or tipping, is a stroke entirely different and very much a independent stroke with a independent purpose.
Partial strokes are often and with purpose and design to be designated to one portion of the body to which cannot be fully impacted by other strokes.
Partial strokes are used to strike between the shoulder blade and spine, on those skinny slaves that have no meat or muscle to take a full stroke across their back. This stroke is also designed to impact one section, such as one buttock cheek and not the other or to impact one thigh, one breast / chest and not the other.
This partial stroke is perfect for those individuals to whom are bruised on one cheek and not the other, or if they have brands or tattoos in the process of healing as well as to bypass piercing
The cane’s angle is at a degree as only touch the designated area with approximately three to seven inches of the tip of the cane.
The partial stroke is also used in caning female genitals lightly as not to break the clitoris or to bruise the labia minor, vagina entrance or anal entrance.
Since most canes are made of natural and breathing fibers, genital juices will absorb into the cane. It is suggested if you have no canes to dedicate to that one slave and to their genitals, you use plastic wrap or cling wrap to cover over the genitals be it male or female, as to be a barrier between the cane and them. It can be thin plastic as long as it is flexible and ideal if it is clear as to view the effects of caning that area.
Now, in the proper tipping stroke, only the very tip of the cane is used. Just as if one was to write or erase with the pencil, the true ends of the cane are used.
Depending on the cane, some are made with smooth or rounded ends or with squared or beveled ends and if one is lucky, will have a cane with both types of edges on one cane.
In the tipping stroke, it is with the end that a stroke is used much like tapping a light switch off. These tipping strokes are very light and are rhythmic and again require a Master to use a soft and allow the cane to vibrate.
The target spots for tipping employs common acupressure sites upon the body, such as on top of the nipple in women, that in turn vibrates the milk gland and in a sensitive woman, will trigger small orgasms as this vibration goes into the genital area. Men who have their nipples tipped get a pleasurable sensation as well that travels to their genitals as well. If totally relaxed and able to allow the sensation flow may also have erections, some cases will have pre cum and some may have a small orgasm.
In tipping the pubic area of men and women, for men it is approximately one half inch from the root of the penis and for women approximately one half inch from the top of where the labia major joins or a bit more than one half inch from the clitoris, will also create small orgasm in women and arousal of men to pleasure to small orgasms. Again, this is based on acupressure and using body vibrations.
The use of tipping can be found on the buttocks and not recommended to be used elsewhere other then buttocks, nipples and pubic areas.
In using the tipping stroke on the buttock cheeks, it is a down stroke and quick, using the tip as if to mark firmly on a chalkboard.
In using the tipping stroke with the smooth side, it is more pleasurable and not as painful as the flat or squared side. And, the intensity of the tipping stroke on the buttocks is double of that of what is used on the nipples and genital areas.
Moving forward into multiple cane work, in which the strokes clap and drum are used, the use of two canes comes into play and requires a good eye and good aim using two canes at once as they are in both hands.
The clap stroke is exactly as it is described, as you clap two pieces of wood or two trash can lids together at the same time. However, the idea is to have the slave’s body be impacted on both sides of her or his body at the same time.
It is easier for the Master to use the clap stroke with same weighted or diameter cane as well as the same length. Furthermore, the clap stroke works best upon the thighs of the slave as to hit elsewhere requires one hand to be soft and the other more firm, such in the breast and buttocks combination.
The drum or drumming stroke is much like a drummer would use one cane at a time but one right after the other. This if done light upon the back can be so relaxing that the slave may feel the cane more as a massage then a instrument of pain or discomfort.
Because canes impact the tip of the cane will dig deeper then where it strikes closer to the hand. It is important to change sides as to have the cane impact equally both sides of the body.
Canes do flex and will wrap if allowed to extend past the mound of the buttocks or target area. So, Masters need to use care in placing their strokes as well as to place themselves in a position as to see how their strokes land on the slave’s body.
By not standing at the slave’s hip, the impact will not be evenly delivered with equal force on the buttock cheeks, thus one cheek will be full force and the other half of what the other cheek gets.
In sensual caning, the Master should walk the cane up and down the buttock cheeks as not to impact repeatedly on the same flesh. Hitting in a variety of places allows the body to register the sensation and not merely stack impact on top of impact causing more pain.
In punishment, then indeed the cane is applied on the same spot repeatedly till the Master decides enough pain has been given.
Masters that have warmed their slaves up can gently and slowly increase intensity of the strokes and use other styles. However, a Master should not rush this process and watch the body language most closely.
With any corporal play, women tend to rise to their toes and hold that position as they feel pain or discomfort going through their bodies. When such occurs, the Master should not strike the slave as to allow the maximum effect of the sensation to go through the slave’s body.
With men, they tend to flex their hands or growl deeply in their throat or at times yank at their bondage. This is where the Master or Mistress should wait till they have allowed the pain to subside before adding another impact.
The best advice to Masters and Mistresses in working with canes beyond low key or extremely light play, is to take their slaves out of restraints as to allow the slaves to thrash and struggle with the pain without pulling their wrists, shoulders and or pulling bondage furniture on top of themselves as they thrash or struggle.
As we all know, there are individuals that are in the community to which move and wiggle no matter what. In the case of caning or any other impact play, the Master must make it clear, that once the cane starts forward or any other whip or paddle, that if they move out of position they will be struck where ever it lands. It is with this understanding the slave must control themselves and stay close as possible in the position and if out of position it is “shame on them” and there will be no apology from the Master.
In the course of the scene a Master conducts, the slave is the canvas to which the Master creates around. The idea is often allowing the slave to escape into what is called subspace or flying. How far out depends on the Master’s desire and how long it is maintained is governed by Masters on how then use the cane to maintain to go into another level or to come down.
If and when the Master wishes to end the slave’s subspace, the Master reverses the intensity and continues to work with the canes as if to back down the ladder just as smoothly as he had the slave walk up the ladder. In ending the strokes are as gentle as it was in the beginning and stopped.
In doing this, the Master does not permit what is called, “dropping” the slave. In which a Master takes a slave into subspace or flying and then just abruptly stops.
In some cases, this can’t be helped but, for normal scene scenarios, this isn’t done.
It will be repeated often, that Masters should conduct good after care as well as bringing their slave down carefully.
Because slaves are often detached from the surroundings, they often misjudge how their body functions and are to eager to walk about. Yet, subspace or flying is very much like a person high on drugs or drunk. Coordination isn’t possible just as some slaves go into such deep subspace or flying they can’t communicate safe words or even speak.
Unless a Master is at his private dungeon, most people will appreciate having you move off the equipment as to allow them the opportunity to play on it.
If you have an assistant, you as a Master can have that assistant remove your equipment from the site or to attend to the slave.
After a scene, it is hoped that the Master checks the slave’s body over as to attend to any injuries that have occurred.
For an exceptionally sadistic Master to apply to a real masochist slave, there is an additional means to add pain to the caning experience.
Known as “figging” it is a old English caning tradition, to which a fresh ginger root is peeled into the shape of a cone, then insert into the rectum of the slave and allow it to stay there approximately 10 minutes, to allow the burning sensation to mount to painful levels, then begin the severe caning.
The root looses it’s burning powers in approximately 20 minutes, so it is usually removed and a new root is inserted into the anus with the root being a bit bigger. Caning then is restarted and when ending the caning the root is removed and after care is given.
As with anything, not all people are able to take the intensity of such a traditional caning to a Singapore punishment caning intensity however, should a person be able to handle such, instead of using chemicals the use of a ginger root, which is a natural product may not cause the chemical burns which often concerns many in the scene.
Reprinted with permission, courtesy Lady Hugs
Copyrighted and Registered with the US Library of Congress # TXu 828-635 under Lady Hugs
Not to be reprinted in any format without written permission of the author.
Copyrighted © 2004
Many thanks to Lady Hugs for permitting me to reprint this article.